gibson:teaching:fall-2016:math753:qr-leastsquares

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gibson:teaching:fall-2016:math753:qr-leastsquares [2016/10/12 09:16] gibson |
gibson:teaching:fall-2016:math753:qr-leastsquares [2016/10/12 09:18] (current) gibson |
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Let $r = Ax-b$. Thinking geometrically, $\|r\| = \|Ax-b\|$ will be smallest when $r$ is orthogonal to the span of the columns of $A$. Recall that for the QR factorization $A=QR$, the columns of $Q$ are an orthonormal basis for the span of the columns of $A$. So $r$ is orthogonal to the span of the columns of $A$ when | Let $r = Ax-b$. Thinking geometrically, $\|r\| = \|Ax-b\|$ will be smallest when $r$ is orthogonal to the span of the columns of $A$. Recall that for the QR factorization $A=QR$, the columns of $Q$ are an orthonormal basis for the span of the columns of $A$. So $r$ is orthogonal to the span of the columns of $A$ when | ||

- | \begin{align*} | + | \begin{equation*} |

- | Q^T r = 0\\ | + | Q^T r = 0 |

- | Q^T (Ax-b) = 0\\ | + | \end{equation*} |

- | Q^T A x = Q^T b \\ | + | \begin{equation*} |

- | Q^T Q R x = Q^T b \\ | + | Q^T (Ax-b) = 0 |

+ | \end{equation*} | ||

+ | \begin{equation*} | ||

+ | Q^T A x = Q^T b | ||

+ | \end{equation*} | ||

+ | \begin{equation*} | ||

+ | Q^T Q R x = Q^T b | ||

+ | \end{equation*} | ||

+ | \begin{equation*} | ||

R x = Q^T b | R x = Q^T b | ||

- | \end{align*} | + | \end{equation*} |

Since $Q$ is an $m \times n$ matrix whose columns are orthonormal, $Q^T Q = I$ is the $n \times n$ identity matrix. Since $R$ is $n\times n$, we now have as the same number of equations as unknowns. The last line, $Rx = Q^Tb$, is a square upper-triangular system which we can solve by backsubstitution. | Since $Q$ is an $m \times n$ matrix whose columns are orthonormal, $Q^T Q = I$ is the $n \times n$ identity matrix. Since $R$ is $n\times n$, we now have as the same number of equations as unknowns. The last line, $Rx = Q^Tb$, is a square upper-triangular system which we can solve by backsubstitution. |

gibson/teaching/fall-2016/math753/qr-leastsquares.txt · Last modified: 2016/10/12 09:18 by gibson